Wednesday, March 29, 2017

1900: Park-Davis Glaseptic Nebulizer

The Glaseptic nebulizer was used to aerosolize
Solution to the respiratory tract: nose, mouth
and lungs.  It was a "handy apparatus" and
produced a fine spray by squeezing the rubber
bulb.  The nebulizer and throat piece were made
of glass because some solutions chemically react
with metals.  It was easy to use and portable.(3)
When epinephrine was discovered at the turn of the century, and it was proven to be useful in ending asthma attacks, a device was sought out to deliver the medication directly to the lungs. 

The only logical options at the time were glass nebulizers that worked by squeezing a rubber bulb.  One such product was the Park-Davis Glaseptic Nebulizer made by Parke-Davis & Company in Detroit, Michigan.

Older nebulizers were made of metal, and some medicines reacted with metal.  So the newer nebulizers were made of glass.  On the box is written:  "Ready for instant use, easily kept clean and efficient with either oily or watery liquids. Effective in producing a spray with only small quantities of liquid. No metal to corrode or affect the medicinal properties of solutions".

The product was described by the editors of Therapeutic Notes in 1910 this way: (2, page 215)
The working parts of this apparatus consist of one piece of glass, with one rubber bulb and tube and glass throat piece. The base is of metal, nickel plated. Under light pressure upon the bulb the medicament is drawn by the air current to the top of the inner tube and expelled as a fine spray. Oils of all densities, as well as aqueous, spirituous and ethereal liquids, are nebulized instantly, though there may be only a few drops in the reservoir. The Nebulizer is three and one-half inches high, and is marketed in a neat carton.
1907 Ad for Adrenaline Solution and Glaseptic Nebulizer (1) It provided
another option for physicians and their patients.
Another article in the same magazine notes: (4)

MEDICATED VAPORS—HOW TO EMPLOY THEM.
We have an interesting pamphlet bearing this title which we shall be pleased to send to any of our readers on request. It deals with our line of Inhalants and also our Glaseptic Nebulizer. The latter is a big advance on other atomizers. As its name implies, every part of it with which the contained liquid comes in contact is of glass and can easily be kept aseptic. There are no loose parts to be lost and no metallic tubes to corrode. As it operates effectively with only a few drops in the reservoir it is a most economical apparatus; moreover, it can be securely sealed by the introduction of a single cork, thus preventing evaporation and spilling of contents, and facilitating transportation in the pocket or instrument bag. It produces an excellent spray, when either an aqueous or oily liquid is used.
The Glaseptic Nebulizer came in boxes as seen here.  It was
manufactured and sold by Park-Davis & Co., Detroit, Michigan
An advertisement on page 212 of the same catalog notes there is only one glass part of the nebulizer, and it's the part the solution goes into. The only other working part is the throat piece, which costs $1.25.

Epinephrine (Adrenaline) came in small glass ampules that were snapped open, and the liquid contents were spilled into the glass reservoir.  Water could be added to the solution for a longer treatment. The patient would place the mouthpiece up to her lips and create a mist by squeezing the bulb.

Other medicines were also recommended for inhalations, such as Acetozone and Chloretone for hay fever.  For hay fever, either of these, or adrenaline, was squirted into the nasal passages for quick relief of symptoms.  (2)

The Glaseptic Nebulizer only cost $1 and was readily available for those who needed it.  Plus it could be used either in the doctor's office or in the comfort of your own home. 
This article and picture are from the Therapeutic Times. The nebulizer produced a fine spray
that was ideal for atomizing soluble medicine to the respiratory tract, particularly the nose and
throat.  It was also an ideal way to apply adrenaline directly to the respiratory tract.  It was simple,
and portable, meaning it could be used in the doctor's office or by asthmatics at their homes.
I am posting it here mainly because I think its a good close up of the nebulizer.
(From Therapeutic Times, volumes 28-32, Park, Davis & Co., 1921)
References:
  1. Advertisement from Surgical journal, Volume 14 By International Association of Railway Surgeons, American Association of Railway Surgeons, page 472, railway surgical journal, 1907.  You can find another ad in Pharmaceutical Review, 1907, volume 25, Hoffman, Fredrick, Edward Kremers, editors, advertisement page 78
  2. "SUGGESTIONS AS TO THE LOCAL TREATMENT OF HAYFEVER AND ACUTE AND CHRONIC CATARRHS," Therapeutic Notes, Volumes 17 and 18, Park Davis and Company, 1909 and 1910, page 215
  3. Leyden, Hans, "Preliminary Remarks in regard to the Percutaneous Method of Applying the "Ehrlich-Hata 606," Therapeutic Notes, Volumes 17 and 18, 1909 and 1910, Park Davis and Company, page 168 (also see advertisement on page 212)
  4. "Medicated Vapors and how to employ them," Therapeutic Notes, Volumes 17 and 18, 1909 and 1910, Park Davis and Company, page 5

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