|Samuel Thomas von Sommering (1755-1830)|
was a German physician and anatomist who,
confirmed Reisseissen's discovery. (6, page 4)
He performed experiments in 1808, and the results were published as essays in Berlin in 1822. (1, pages 196-197)
W.H. Geddings, in the 1885 edition of A System of Practical Medicine, said Reisseissen discovered...
...smooth muscle fibres of the bronchial tubes. These fibres are found not only in the large and medium-sized bronchi, but even in those of the smallest calibre."(2, page 185, 193)
|Emanuel Aufrecht (1844-1903)|
attended school in Berlin
and was a student of Ludwig Traub
and Rudolf Virchow.
He graduated from medical school in 1866.
He became a physician at
Magdeburg-Alstadt City Hospital in 1868,
and physician in chief of Internal Medicine
at Magdeburg in 1879.
He worked out the arrangement
of the bronchial muscle fibres. (7, page 163)
While chief of clinical medicine at Magdeburg,
he published a book with his colleagues in 1902
called "Diseases of the Bronchi, Lungs and Pleura."
(8, title page)
Without his discovery, none of the discoveries that readily proved asthma was spasmotic would have been possible, including those of Charles J.B. William and Francois Longett.
Rene Laennec, in his 1819 book "Mediate Auscultation" said there were various theories as to the structure of the lungs prior to Reisseissen's discovery. For instance, Laennec said: (3, page 154)
(Marcello) Malpighi conceived that the air cells (later to become known as alveoli) were formed by the inner membrane of the bronchi being divided, previously to their termination, into cells like those of a sponge. Helvetius fancied that he had ascertained by direct experiment, that the air cells were formed by a simple cellular tissue, disposed without any regular order, and derived from the cellular envelopes of the various vessels by which the lungs are traversed. (Albrecht von) Haller entertained almost the same opinion, which is, indeed, that of the greater number of anatomists. (3, page 154)
|M. Varnier confirmed Reisseissen's experiments|
that the bronchi may constrict when stimulated.
He believed "irritating fluids or fumes forced
into the lungs caused contraction therof."
There were also various other physicians
who confirmed Reisseissen's experiment,
including: Prochaska, Gotfried, Reinhold,
Treviranus, and Wedemeyer
(6, page 4)(7, page 27)
...by means of a great many microscopical observations and mercurial injections, has ascertained that the bronchi, at their extremities, are subdivided into a multitude of small canals, terminated by cul-de-sac of globular form, grouped somewhat in the manner of terminal branchlets of cauliflower. (3, page 154)John Forbes quoted Reisseissen as saying...
... that, although it appears difficult to follow the muscular fibres further, analogy leads us to admit their existence in the smaller branches, and perhaps even in the aircells. (4, page 186)Dr. J.B. Berkart, in the 1878 edition of his book "On Asthma: It's Pathology and Treatment, said that while Reisseissen was aware of muscular fibres surrounding the large and small air passages, their function remained a mystery to him. (5, page 17)
The significance of these muscular fibres has still not been determined as of this writing, as I explained in my post "Asthma: The Appendix of the Lungs.
However, the significance of their impact on asthma lead to a massive search that would last for the duration of the 19th century. The hunt was on to learn more about them and what they did. This task was begun by Charles J.B. Williams and Francois Longett. Yet the debate would continue on for the duration of the century.
- Addison, Thomas, J.M. Bourgery, and George Rainey, "On the air cells of the lungs," The Edinburgh Medical and Surgical Journal, volume 69, 1848, pages 192-214
- Geddings, W.H., author of the chapter on "Bronchial Asthma," in the book "A System of Practical Medicine," edited by William Pepper and Louis Star,Volume 3, 1885, Philadelphia, Lea Brothers and Co.
- Laennec, Rene Theophile Hyacinthe, "A treaties on the diseases of the chest, and on mediate auscultation," translated by John Forbes, 1838, New York, Philadelphia, Samuel S. and William Wood, Thomas Cowperthwaite and Company
- Forbes, John, ed., "The Cyclopaedia of practical medicine," 1833, volume 1, page 186
- Berkart, J.B., "On Asthma: It's pathology and treatment," 1878, London, J. & A. Churchill
- Shmiegelow, Ernst, "Asthma, considered specially in relation to nasal disease," 1890, London, H.K. Lewis
- Brown, Orville Harry, "Asthma, presenting an exposition of nonpassive expiration theory," 1917, St. Louis, C.V. Mosby Company
- Hoffman, Friedrich Albin, Ottomar Rosenbach, Emanuel Aufrecht, writers, John H. Musser, editor, Alfred Stengel, translator, "Diseases of the Bronchi, Lungs and Pleura," 1902, Philadelphia, New York and London,asthma history, COPD history, inhalation therapy history, medical history W.B. Saunders and Company.
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